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Acute Myeloid Leukemia (Aml)

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease that is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of clonal neoplastic cells and accumulation in the bone marrow of blasts with an impaired differentiation program. AML accounts for approximately 80% of all adult leukemias and remains the most common cause of leukemia death. Two major types of genetic events have been described that are crucial for leukemic transformation. A proposed necessary first event is disordered cell growth and upregulation of cell survival genes. The most common of these activating events were observed in the RTK Flt3, in N-Ras and K-Ras, in Kit, and sporadically in other RTKs. Alterations in myeloid transcription factors governing hematopoietic differentiation provide second necessary event for leukemogenesis. Transcription factor fusion proteins such as PML-RARalpha (in Acute promyelocytic leukemia, a subtype of AML), AML-ETO or PLZF-RARalpha block myeloid cell differentiation by repressing target genes. In other cases,  the transcription factors themselves are mutated.


Carcinogen

Benzene

1,4-Butanediol dimethanesulfonate (Busulphan; Myleran)

Chlorambucil

Cyclophosphamide

Ethylene oxide

Melphalan

Thiotepa

Drug

Cytarabine

Daunorubicin

Idarubicin

Tretinoin

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